The death of a loved family member is an emotionally difficult, perhaps even traumatic event. That grief can be compounded if you learn that your parent or spouse treated you unfairly in their will or if you have concerns regarding the circumstances of the making of the will. Although it is difficult to be objective in these cases, you may have options and you will likely require legal advice concerning the merits of a possible claim.
There are three basic legal issues that arise when considering whether a will can be challenged. One is whether that the will is invalid because it was not signed or witnessed correctly. The second is whether the will is invalid because the will-maker was not mentally capable of executing a will or because the will was the product of undue influence exercised by some other person over the will-maker. Third, assuming the will is valid, can the contents of the will be attacked on the basis that it fails to make adequate provision for certain family members and as such is liable to be varied by the Court.
Because wills must be probated, that is processed and accepted by the Supreme Court of British Columbia as the valid last will and testament of the deceased, the Court will be involved in any dispute over a will’s validity or variation.
Reasons to Contest the Validity of a Will
There are a number of what lawyers call ‘formal’ requirements of a valid will. If the form of the will does not meet those requirements, it may not be accepted by the Court. Those requirements are set out in sections 36 to 40 of the British Columbia Wills, Estates and Succession Act or WESA.
It is not uncommon for individuals who are the beneficiaries of a will or those who believe that they have been unfairly excluded from a will to consider contesting the will’s validity. While, under BC law, wills that are otherwise valid can be challenged or failing to provide adequate provision for the testator’s spouse or children, a will’s validity itself can be attacked as well. Some of the more common grounds under which a will can be challenged are detailed below. For information or advice regarding a specific case, call our office today.
- Lack of mental capacity on the part of the testator – A person who makes a will must be aware of the fact that he or she is making a will, be aware of the property at issue, understand what he or she was giving and to whom, and be free from a mental defect that could affect his or her judgment regarding these kinds of issues. These kinds of challenges to a will are common when people make a will later in life or when they are in the early stages of an illness that may affect their judgment.
- Undue Influence – In some cases, there may be evidence that the terms of person’s will were the result of the coercion or overbearing nature of another person and that they do not accurately reflect the wishes of the testator. When this is the case, a will’s validity may be challenged for undue influence.
- Due Execution – In order to be valid, a will must comply with certain legal formalities, including the fact that the will must be in writing, signed by the testator or at the testator’s direction, the signature must be made or acknowledged by the testator in the presence of two witnesses who are both present, the witnesses must sign the will, and the testator must be at least 19. There are specific provisions for members of the armed forces, so always check with a lawyer regarding the validity of your will.
Generally, to be valid, a will must be in writing, signed at the end of the document by the will-maker who is at least 16 years old, in the presence of at least two adult witnesses who also must sign the will in the presence of the will-maker.
Until recently, if a will failed to meet the formal requirements for making a valid will, it would not be probated and the will-maker’s descendants would be forced to look for a will made at an earlier time or potentially be faced with an intestacy, that is the estate would have to be administered without reference to the deceased’s wishes. On an intestacy, the distribution rules established in WESA (or its predecessor statute) would determine who received the deceased’s assets.
However one of the changes legislated by WESA is that the Court is given the power to determine that a document which does not meet the formal requirements of a will, for example because the deceased’s signature on the document is not witnessed, should still be accepted as the deceased’s last will and probated by the Court. In order to ‘cure’ a formal deficiency in a document and hold that it is in fact a will, the Court must be satisfied on a balance of probabilities that the document is authentic and records the ‘fixed and final expression of the deceased’s testamentary intentions’.
Therefore a will, or a document that is the subject of an application to the Court to have it accepted as a ‘will, may be challenged because it fails to satisfy the formal requirements, is not authentic or fails to record the fixed and final expression of the deceased’s testamentary intentions.
It should be noted that there are special rules regarding the formal validity of wills made by members of the armed forces or if the will was made outside of British Columbia: see sections 38 and 80 of WESA.
Contesting the Validity or Interpretation of a Will
There are many reasons why you may believe that the provisions of a will should not be honored as written. Some of these include:
- The will was not properly signed, witnessed, or executed in accordance with the law.
- The testator did not have the mental capacity to understand the nature of their estate or who they intended to rightfully receive an inheritance from the estate.
- Another person unduly influenced the testator into drafting or amending their will.
- Undue influence can be exercised in a variety of contexts. ‘Rogue’ family members or hired caregivers can take advantage of seniors who are isolated and/or suffer from some diminished mental capacity. Other ‘advisors’ or persons who pretend to befriend an isolated and vulnerable senior have also been found to be ‘undue influencers’.
- The testator was induced by fraud into signing the will.
- One or more provisions of the will have been misinterpreted by the executor or the courts (as to the identification of property, the identity of beneficiaries, and other mistakes).
The Court will not probate a will if it is established after a trial that the will-maker was not mentally capable of making a will, or if it determines the will was made as a result of the exercise of undue influence by another person.
In a dispute whether the will-maker was mentally capable of making a will, the Court will apply a common law legal test known as the rule in Banks v Goodfellow (which is a nineteenth century English court decision). That rule or test as restated in more recent court decisions says that in order to have ‘testamentary capacity’ or a ‘sound disposing mind’, the following must be met:
- The will-makes must understand the nature and effect of a will;
- The will-maker must recollect the nature and extent of his or her property;
- The will-maker must understand the extent of what he or she is giving under the will;
- The will-maker must remember the persons he or she might be expected to benefit under their will; and
- The will-maker, where applicable, must understand the nature of the claims that may be made by a person who is excluded from the will.
The caselaw also says that the test for testamentary capacity is not ‘overly onerous’ and a person may have sufficient capacity despite some cognitive problems, for example imperfect memory. Expert medical evidence is typically relied upon in cases where a will is challenged on the basis of insufficient mental capacity.
Raising these types of arguments can be complicated and can involve looking into the personal affairs of testators and others who may be involved. However, sometimes contesting the will is necessary to ensure your loved one’s genuine wishes are honored and that you receive your rightful inheritance.
What Happens When a Will Is Contested?
A will sets out a person’s directions for the distribution of his or her assets upon their death. A will therefore is a very important legal document, but to be effective, it has to be submitted to the Court with other information for the purpose of “probating” or proving the validity of the will.
British Columbia like most jurisdictions has very specific rules for what constitutes a valid will. The Court will review the will to determine whether it satisfies those rules.
During that process, questions may be raised not just whether the will was validly made, signed and witnessed but whether it was the result of some other person exercising undue influence over the will maker. A will may also be challenged if there are concerns that the will maker did not have the required mental capacity at the time to make a valid will.
If a will is found not to be valid for any of those reasons, that document will not be allowed to take effect. Consequently an earlier will may be considered or if there is no valid earlier will, the assets of the estate will pass by the laws of intestacy. In British Columbia, in the event of an intestacy, a spouse will receive all of the estate up to a certain value and any amount above that value will be split between the spouse and children. Special rules apply to the treatment of interests in the “spousal home” and “household furnishings”.
Even a will that is found to be validly made by a will maker with the necessary mental capacity to make a will can be challenged by spouses or children who regard the distribution of assets under the will as unfair. The law in British Columbia allows a Court to effectively rewrite a will and change the distribution of the deceased person’s assets if it concludes the will maker failed to satisfy the legal and/or moral obligations he or she owed to their spouse or children.
Applying for a Wills Variation
Our lawyers can also assist surviving spouses and children with applications for wills variations under the Wills, Estates and Succession Act. We are committed to ensuring that spouses and children are not wrongfully disinherited and are properly provided for following the death of a family member.
Section 60 of WESA provides:
Despite any law or enactment to the contrary, if a will-maker dies leaving a will that does not, in the court’s opinion, make adequate provision for the proper maintenance and support of the will-maker’s spouse or children, the court may, in a proceeding by or on behalf of the spouse or children, order that the provision that it thinks adequate, just and equitable in the circumstances be made out of the will-maker’s estate for the spouse or children.
As can be seen from that wording, only a spouse or a child of a will-maker can seek to vary a will in British Columbia. Grandchildren, siblings, parents or friends cannot bring a claim.
For those that can bring a claim, the central question is whether the will makes adequate provision for the proper maintenance and support of the claimant. That question has been extensively considered by the courts in British Columbia and also notably by the Supreme Court of Canada in the Tataryn Estate decision. Those decisions indicate that a court will consider a number of factors in determining whether a will adequately provides for a spouse or a child including:
- The legal obligations owed by will-maker (for example to provide financial support for a spouse or a younger child);
- The moral obligations owed by the will-maker (spouses and adult children are owed such obligations but some claimants may be owed higher obligations, for example long time spouses or disabled children);
- What substantial gifts the will-maker made in their lifetime to their spouse and children, if any;
- The size of the estate;
- The financial circumstances and needs of the spouse and children;
- Any conduct of the claimant towards the will-maker that justifies he or she being disinherited; and
- Any assured or implied ‘expectation’ on the part of a child that he or she would share in the estate.
Learn more about our Wills Variation.
Contact a knowledgeable contested and disputed wills lawyer in Vancouver for help today
Challenging a will on any ground likely requires a lawyer’s assistance. Estate litigation involves complex legal principles and issues and presents many traps for the unwary. In addition, the collection and presentation of the right type of evidence to the Court, including potentially expert opinion evidence, is essential to the successful prosecution of a claim concerning a will. People who are not familiar with the law, the role of evidence in the courtroom, and the procedures of the Court are unlikely to one, accurately assess the chances of a successful challenge to a will, and two, conduct the lawsuit and trial in a manner that maximizes the chances of success.
In addition, an unsuccessful lawsuit may also have ‘costs’ consequences. That means that if you lose an estate litigation case, you may become liable to pay a portion of the legal costs of the winner. Consequently, it is important to have effective legal advice about the merits of your claim and the financial risks of proceeding, not just at the outset, but also during the course, of any lawsuit.
If you are considering contesting a will or claiming an inheritance in British Columbia, your first step should be to contact the law firm of McLarty Wolf. We have the experience and knowledge to provide valuable advice and assistance regarding will challenges, so please call us today at 604-688-9542 to discuss your situation today.